Footnotes

1 The Triumph of Death. Madrid, Museo del Prado, Wood, 117xl 62 cm. Perhaps the earliest reference to the ‘Triumph of Death’ panel comes from the first biography of Bruegel written by Carol van Mander in 1604 in his book Schilderboek ‘expedients of every kind are tried out against death ‘. Grossmann, p 8 ‘a mention of the ‘Triumph of Death’ (Antwerp 1614) in the inventory of Philippe Van Valckeneer Collection’ Delevoy, p 102. Acquired by the Prado in 1827.
2 Marijnissen, Bruegel, p 24
3 Grossmann, p 8 Carel Van Mander book – Schilderboek 1604 is the best early source of information available on Northern Artists.  Grossmann notes ‘until the 19th century, few critics had anything relevant to add to Carel Van Mander’s picture of Bruegel, p 29
4 C de Tolnay, Pierre Bruegel, Ancient 2 Vols (1935)
3 The last article that added anything new was Keith Moxey in “The Fates and Pieter Bruegel’s Triumph of Death” (1973) see Bibliography.
5 Foote, p 21
7 Ibid
8 Dickens, pp 168-73
9 Other works where torture or reference to executions can be found include Anger (Vice), Justice (Virtue), Fortitude (Virtue), Netherlandish Proverbs, The Dulle Griet, The Procession to Calvary, Massacre of the Innocents and The Magpie on the Gallows.
10 Rose-Marie and Rainer Hagen, p 7
11 Counts Egrnont and Hoorn
12 Deblaere, p 176
13 Thon, p 297
14 See footnote 86
15 See footnote 8
16 Duffy, p 305
17 Lynch, p 266
18 Ibid
19 Petzold, p 74
20 Boase, p 119
21 Collins English Dictionary and Thesaurus, p 929
22 Lynch, p 268
23 Ibid. footnote 6
24 Boase, p 116
25 Duffy, p 308
26 Loya p 109
27 Binski, p 153
28 See Holbein’s woodcuts for examples in figures – 9, 10, I4, 16 & 18
29 This is in reference to Holbein’s ‘Dance of Death’ series which has 41 woodcuts
30 Clark, p 95
31 Binski, p 134, also see p 136 for an example of this dialogue or see Clark, p 96
32 Clark, pp 95-97
33 Binski, p 157
34 Ibid. p 154
35 Rose-Marie & Rainer Hagen, p 45
36 Clark, p 2
37 Binski, p 123
38 Boase, p 94
39 Roberts, “anyone who has stood in front of Francesco Traini’s mid -14th century  Triumph of Death in Campsanto at Pisa will immediately recognize the kinship with Bruegel’s painting” p 18
40 Bellosi, p 775. See Art Dictionary 1996?
41 Meiss, p 74
42 Ibid. Also see Grossmann p 15 footnote 2 & Martin, p 13
43 Grossmann, p 15
44 Bede, EH. III-26, IV-L14
45 Lynch, pp 306-11
46 Loyn, H.R pp 267-68
47 Meiss, p 75
48 Binski, p 157
49 Gundersheimer, p 9
50 Davis, NZ, p 101
51 Gundersheimer, p 9
52 Grossinger, p 142
53 Thon, p 291
54 Gibson, Bruegel, p 116
55 Cuttler, p 66
56 Gibson, Bruegel, p 64
57 See footnotes 1 & 3 for Carel Van Mander
58 Grossmann, p 9
59 See Gibson, Bruegel, p 64
60 Grossmann, p 23
61 See Marijnissen for dates for the Dulle Griet and Triumph of Death p 341
62 This parallel is made by Gibson, Bruegel, p 119
63 A charnel house is a building or vault where corpses or bones are deposited.
64 Bussagalj, p 13
65 figure 24 – Hell scene detail from Hieronymus Bosch’s ‘Garden of earthly Delights’
66 Gibson, Bruegel, p 64
67 Note, it is only suggested that Bruegel may have been influenced by the medieval frescoes.
68 Murray, P & L, p 368
69 Gibson, Bruegel, p 166 – suggests slight Italian influence.  Also see Otto Benesch, p 106 ‘some scholars have considered him as the restorer of the Netherlandish art opposed the imported international Romanist ‘
70 Grossmann p 7
71 Cuttler, p 66
72 Foote, p 164
73 For other works that include such scenes – see footnote 8.
74 Gibson, p 62
75 Zupnick, p 286
76 The most cited works that are usually suggested as containing sensitive religious and political meaning are as follows: Massacres of the Innocents, The Numbering at Bethlehem, The Conversion of St PauI, The Cripples, The Sermon of St John the Baptist.
77 Zupnick, p 283
78 See Delevoy, p 107, Grossmann, p 197. Gibson, p 178
79 Martin, p 2
80 Thon, p 292-3
81 Ibid. p 290
82 Ibid
83 Then, p290  also see Delevoy, p 102
84 Thou, p 290
85 Zupnick, p 283
86 Ibid
87 Thon, p 297
88 Ibid. p 295 see footnote 18.
89 Ibid. p 296
90 Ibid
91 Ibid. p 295
92 Robert Jones 1997, See tables for dates – Hulin De Loo circa 1565-6 (1907), Michel circa 1566-69 (1931), Tolnay circa 1561-2 (1935), Friedlander circa1562? (1937), Jedlicka circa 1562 (1938), Gluck circa 1561-2 (1951), Genaille circa 1562-3 (1953), Delevoy circa 1568 (1959), Grossmann circa 1562? (1973) Marijnissen circa 1562? (1988)
93 Gibson, Bruegel, p116
94 Zupnick, p 284
95 Ibid. p 285
96 See footnote 93.
97 Delevoy, p.102.
98 Grossmarm, p.192.
99 Aries, p. 176.
100 Ibid.
101 Mafijnissen, p.9
102 Snyder, Northern Renaissance, p.486.
103 Marijinissen, p.32.
104 Delevoy, p. 102.
105 Moxey, p.49.
106 Ibid.
107 Moxey stresses that “Bruegel’s knowledge of Greek Mythology cannot surprise us, for throughout his life he was the friend of some of the leading humanists of his day” p.50. 103 See Gibson, Bruegel, p.178.
109 Martin, p.2.
110 Thon, p.297.
111 Delevoy, p.102.

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